Chronology at the Crossroads

By Bernard Newgrosh

 

Contents

 

PART ONE

GEOPOLITICAL PROBLEMS IN THE ORTHODOX CHRONOLOGY

 

Chapter 1 - The Imperial Hittites and their neighbours

 

The Orthodox Chronology                                                                            

Conventional Assumptions                                                                             p22

Key Arguments that render the Orthodox Chronology obsolete:

            Assyrian and Hittite inscriptions describe different worlds:

                        The Carchemish conundrum                                                   p23

            The Phoenix of Mitanni                                                                      p29

            Internal Contradictions:

                        Contradictory Hittite texts                                                      p33

                        Impossible Hurrian kings                                                        p36

            Difficult choices for the historian

                        Ahlamu armies                                                                      p38

            An isolated Assyrian letter                                                                  p41

                        Failed Trade sanctions                                                            p46

            A chronologically based problem:

                        The Enigma of Emar                                                               p50

 

Chapter 2 - Ashur-uballit: a question of identity

 

            Part One: Ashur-uballit as Conqueror                                                  p54

            Part Two: Problems from the Amarna Letters                                       p70

 

Chapter 3 - The eclipse of Mittani: current concepts in Hurrian history

Hurrian Political Geography                                                                             p87

            The Floating Trio                                                                                p89

            Capital Relocation                                                                              p91

            Shaushtatar and Thutmose III                                                            p96

            Shaushtatar and Tudhaliya II                                                             p100

A Thesis in Crisis: Geopolitical and Art Historical Problems in the OC                 p104

 

 

PART TWO

THE KEY TO CHRONOLOGY. THE CONSTRUCTION AND EDITING OF THE ASSYRIAN KING LIST.

 

Chapter 4 - Assyrian Chronometers

The Mesopotamian count of years                                                                  p109

                         

The limmu list: an idealised chronological principle                                          p113

Variant limmu lists                                                                                        p121.

The Assyrian King List (AKL)                                                                          p128

Variant reign-lengths                                                                                    p133

 

Chapter 5 - Problem Areas in Assyrian Chronometry

The ‘crown jewels’ of Assyrian chronology                                                       p136

Multiple eponymy                                                                                          p148

The eponym Canon Reassessed                                                                      p153

Summary and Conclusions                                                                             p160

 

Chapter 6 - Concurrent Dynasties in early Mesopotamia

The AKL and Mesopotamian tradition                                                             p162

Concurrent Dynasties and Dark Ages                                                             p165

Concurrent Dynasties in the AKL                                                                    p169

The Reade Hypothesis                                                                                   p175

 

Chapter 7 -  Middle Assyrian concurrent Dynasties

Ashur-nadin-apli and Ashur-nasir-apli.                                                            p183

The King who never was.                                                                               p191

Ashur-rabi II, founder of a dynasty.                                                               p194

 

Chapter 8 - The evolution of the Assyrian King List and its second Redaction

The officers of Assyria                                                                                   p202

The Lugal and his Ensi                                                                                   p208

The Second Era of Redaction                                                                          p213

 

Chapter 9 - The Era of the Final Redaction and the Transformation

The Third Redaction                                                                                      p220

A final Transformation                                                                                   p228

The reunification of rule                                                                                 p234

The End of the Middle Assyrian Period                                                             p238

 

Chapter 10 – A non-linear King List and the Implications for Chronology

Pitru and the Aramaeans                                                                              p241

Evidence for concurrent dynasties                                                                 p244

The AKL as the key to chronology                                                                 p248

 

PART THREE

WESTERN ASIA IN THE NEW CHRONOLOGY

 

Chapter 11 - The struggle for recognition: the Amarna Ashur-uballit

Eight Answers                                                                                             p253

Amarna Assyrianisms & artefacts                                                                  p261

Regal Epithets                                                                                             p264

The historical era of Ashur-uballit II                                                              p269

 

Nine conclusions                                                                                           p274

 

Chapter 12 – Absolute and Relative Chronology

The basis of absolute chronology                                                                   p275

The Tawananna eclipse                                                                                 p277

Other Late Bronze Age astronomical dates                                                     p280

Assyro-Hittite relative chronology                                                                 p283

New Chronology Assyrian dates                                                                    p285

New Chronology Hittite dates                                                                       p288

 

Chapter 13 - The struggle for supremacy: Hatti and Assyria in the L B Age

1. The Babylonian Alliance     (c.1,000 – 950 BC)                                             p293

                        A Mysterious Intervention

                        The Chronology of Tiglath-pileser I’s Campaigns                       p295

                        The Year 983 BC and Aftermath                                              p297

                        Breakthrough in the West                                                       p300

                        The Ahlamu Problem                                                              p303

2. The Era of Diplomacy                     (c. 900 – 885 BC)

                        The Bipartite Peace Treaty                                                      p309

                        Two Great Powers (only)       

                        The Aftermath                                   

3. The Era of Confrontation   (c. 900 – 885 BC)

                        Prelude to Conflict                                                                 p316

                        The Unique Confrontation                                                      p318

                        The Military Silence                                                                p320

           

4. The Fall of Empire

                        Unanswered Questions                                                           p322

                        The chain-reaction in history                                                   p329

                        The telescoping of history                                                       p331

                                     

5. The ‘Archaic Period’.

                        Ari-Teshub                                                                             p334

                        Karkamis A4b                                                                         p336

                        The Hittite Federation                                                              p339

           

6. The Re-dating of Texts

                        The Conquest of Cyprus                                                      p342

                        A Historical Re-dating of Texts                                             p345

                        The International Correspondence Archive                            p347I

 

Chapter 14 - The Struggle for survival: the Hurrians in the Late Bronze Age

                        Principles of a revised chronology                                           p349

                        Middle Hittite Kings                                                               p350

                        The Eclipse of Mittani                                                            p355

                        Assyro-Hittite relations without a buffer state                          p359

                        Hurrian Revival                                                                     p362

                        Capital Relocation                                                                 p365

 

           

JACF Archive

www.newchronology.org

 

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